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国防白皮书(一)China issues defense white paper  

2013-04-16 22:41:54|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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新华社北京4月16日电

中国武装力量的多样化运用

(2013年4月)

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

目录

前言

一、新形势、新挑战、新使命

二、武装力量建设与发展

三、捍卫国家主权、安全、领土完整

四、保障国家经济社会发展

五、维护世界和平和地区稳定

结束语

附录


Full Text: The Diversified Employment of China's Armed Forces

English.news.cn | 2013-04-16


BEIJING, April 16 (Xinhua) -- The Information Office of the State Council, China's cabinet, on Tuesday published a white paper on China's armed forces.

Following is the full text:

The Diversified Employment of China's Armed Forces

Information Office of the State Council

The People's Republic of China

April 2013, Beijing

Contents

Preface

I. New Situation, New Challenges and New Missions

II. Building and Development of China's Armed Forces

III. Defending National Sovereignty, Security and Territorial Integrity

IV. Supporting National Economic and Social Development

V. Safeguarding World Peace and Regional Stability

Concluding Remarks

Appendices


前言

当今时代,和平与发展面临新的机遇和挑战。紧紧把握机遇,共同应对挑战,合作维护安全,携手实现发展,是时代赋予各国人民的历史使命。

走 和平发展道路,是中国坚定不移的国家意志和战略抉择。中国始终不渝奉行独立自主的和平外交政策和防御性国防政策,反对各种形式的霸权主义和强权政治,不干 涉别国内政,永远不争霸,永远不称霸,永远不搞军事扩张。中国倡导互信、互利、平等、协作的新安全观,寻求实现综合安全、共同安全、合作安全。

建 设与中国国际地位相称、与国家安全和发展利益相适应的巩固国防和强大军队,是中国现代化建设的战略任务,也是中国实现和平发展的坚强保障。中国武装力量适 应国家发展战略和安全战略的新要求,坚持科学发展观的指导思想地位,加快转变战斗力生成模式,构建中国特色现代军事力量体系,与时俱进加强军事战略指导, 拓展武装力量运用方式,为国家发展提供安全保障和战略支撑,为维护世界和平和地区稳定作出应有贡献。

一、新形势、新挑战、新使命

新 世纪以来,世界发生深刻复杂变化,和平与发展仍然是时代主题。经济全球化、世界多极化深入发展,文化多样化、社会信息化持续推进,国际力量对比朝着有利于 维护世界和平方向发展,国际形势保持总体和平稳定的基本态势。与此同时,世界仍然很不安宁,霸权主义、强权政治和新干涉主义有所上升,局部动荡频繁发生, 热点问题此起彼伏,传统与非传统安全挑战交织互动,国际军事领域竞争更趋激烈,国际安全问题的突发性、关联性、综合性明显上升。亚太地区日益成为世界经济 发展和大国战略博弈的重要舞台,美国调整亚太安全战略,地区格局深刻调整。

中国紧紧抓 住和用好发展的重要战略机遇期,现代化建设成就举世瞩目,综合国力大幅跃升,人民生活显著改善,社会大局保持稳定,两岸关系继续呈现和平发展势头,国际竞 争力和影响力不断提高。但是,中国仍面临多元复杂的安全威胁和挑战,生存安全问题和发展安全问题、传统安全威胁和非传统安全威胁相互交织,维护国家统一、 维护领土完整、维护发展利益的任务艰巨繁重。有的国家深化亚太军事同盟,扩大军事存在,频繁制造地区紧张局势。个别邻国在涉及中国领土主权和海洋权益上采 取使问题复杂化、扩大化的举动,日本在钓鱼岛问题上制造事端。恐怖主义、分裂主义、极端主义“三股势力”威胁上升。“台独”分裂势力及其分裂活动仍然是两 岸关系和平发展的最大威胁。重大自然灾害、安全事故和公共卫生事件频发,影响社会和谐稳定的因素增加,国家海外利益安全风险上升。机械化战争形态向信息化 战争形态加速演变,主要国家大力发展军事高新技术,抢占太空、网络空间等国际竞争战略制高点。

面对复杂多变的安全环境,人民解放军坚决履行新世纪新阶段历史使命,拓展国家安全战略和军事战略视野,立足打赢信息化条件下局部战争,积极运筹和平时期武装力量运用,有效应对多种安全威胁,完成多样化军事任务。

中国武装力量的多样化运用,坚持以下基本政策和原则:

—— 维护国家主权、安全、领土完整,保障国家和平发展。这是中国加强国防建设的目的,也是宪法和法律赋予中国武装力量的神圣职责。坚定不移实行积极防御军事战 略,防备和抵抗侵略,遏制分裂势力,保卫边防、海防、空防安全,维护国家海洋权益和在太空、网络空间的安全利益。坚持“人不犯我,我不犯人,人若犯我,我 必犯人”,坚决采取一切必要措施维护国家主权和领土完整。

——立足打赢信息化条件下局 部战争,拓展和深化军事斗争准备。坚定不移把军事斗争准备基点放在打赢信息化条件下局部战争上,统筹推进各战略方向军事斗争准备,加强军兵种力量联合运 用,提高基于信息系统的体系作战能力。创新发展人民战争战略战术,推进军民融合式发展,提高国防动员和后备力量建设质量。全面提高日常战备水平,加强针对 性战备演习演练,周密组织边海空防战备巡逻和执勤,妥善应对各种危机和重大突发事件。

—— 树立综合安全观念,有效遂行非战争军事行动任务。适应安全威胁新变化,重视和平时期武装力量运用。积极参加和支援国家经济社会建设,坚决完成抢险救灾等急 难险重任务。依照法律规定履行维护国家安全和稳定职能,坚决打击敌对势力颠覆破坏活动,打击各种暴力恐怖活动,遂行安保警戒任务。加强应急救援、海上护 航、撤离海外公民等海外行动能力建设,为维护国家海外利益提供可靠的安全保障。

——深 化安全合作,履行国际义务。中国武装力量是国际安全合作的倡导者、推动者和参与者。坚持和平共处五项原则,全方位开展对外军事交往,发展不结盟、不对抗、 不针对第三方的军事合作关系,推动建立公平有效的集体安全机制和军事互信机制。坚持开放、务实、合作的理念,深化同各国军队的交流与合作,加强边境地区建 立信任措施合作,推进海上安全对话与合作,参加联合国维和行动、国际反恐合作、国际护航和救灾行动,举行中外联演联训。认真履行应尽的国际责任和义务,为维护世界和平、安全、稳定发挥积极作用。

—— 严格依法行动,严守政策纪律。中国武装力量遵守宪法和法律,遵守《联合国宪章》的宗旨和原则,坚持依法用兵、依法行动。严格执行法律法规和政策规定,严守 群众纪律,依法完成抢险救灾、维稳处突和安保警戒等任务。以《联合国宪章》和公认的国际关系准则为依据,坚持在双边多边条约的法律构架内行动,确保涉外军 事行动的合法性。制定和完善法律法规和政策制度,严格按照条令条例管理部队,为武装力量多样化运用提供法律保障。

Preface

In today's world, peace and development are facing new opportunities and challenges. It is a historic mission entrusted by the era to people of all nations to firmly grasp the opportunities, jointly meet the challenges, cooperatively maintain security and collectively achieve development.

It is China's unshakable national commitment and strategic choice to take the road of peaceful development. China unswervingly pursues an independent foreign policy of peace and a national defense policy that is defensive in nature. China opposes any form of hegemonism or power politics, and does not interfere in the internal affairs of other countries. China will never seek hegemony or behave in a hegemonic manner, nor will it engage in military expansion. China advocates a new security concept featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination, and pursues comprehensive security, common security and cooperative security.

It is a strategic task of China's modernization drive as well as a strong guarantee for China's peaceful development to build a strong national defense and powerful armed forces which are commensurate with China's international standing and meet the needs of its security and development interests. China's armed forces act to meet the new requirements of China's national development and security strategies, follow the theoretical guidance of the Scientific Outlook on Development, speed up the transformation of the generating mode of combat effectiveness, build a system of modern military forces with Chinese characteristics, enhance military strategic guidance and diversify the ways of employing armed forces as the times require. China's armed forces provide a security guarantee and strategic support for national development, and make due contributions to the maintenance of world peace and regional stability.

I. New Situation, New Challenges and New Missions

Since the beginning of the new century, profound and complex changes have taken place in the world, but peace and development remain the underlying trends of our times. The global trends toward economic globalization and multi-polarity are intensifying, cultural diversity is increasing, and an information society is fast emerging. The balance of international forces is shifting in favor of maintaining world peace, and on the whole the international situation remains peaceful and stable. Meanwhile, however, the world is still far from being tranquil. There are signs of increasing hegemonism, power politics and neo-interventionism. Local turmoils occur frequently. Hot-spot issues keep cropping up. Traditional and non-traditional security challenges interweave and interact. Competition is intensifying in the international military field. International security issues are growing noticeably more abrupt, interrelated and comprehensive. The Asia-Pacific region has become an increasingly significant stage for world economic development and strategic interaction between major powers. The US is adjusting its Asia-Pacific security strategy, and the regional landscape is undergoing profound changes.

China has seized and made the most of this important period of strategic opportunities for its development, and its modernization achievements have captured world attention. China's overall national strength has grown dramatically and the Chinese people's lives have been remarkably improved. China enjoys general social stability and cross-Straits relations are sustaining a momentum of peaceful development. China's international competitiveness and influence are steadily increasing. However, China still faces multiple and complicated security threats and challenges. The issues of subsistence and development security and the traditional and non-traditional threats to security are interwoven. Therefore, China has an arduous task to safeguard its national unification, territorial integrity and development interests. Some country has strengthened its Asia-Pacific military alliances, expanded its military presence in the region, and frequently makes the situation there tenser. On the issues concerning China's territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests, some neighboring countries are taking actions that complicate or exacerbate the situation, and Japan is making trouble over the issue of the Diaoyu Islands. The threats posed by "three forces," namely, terrorism, separatism and extremism, are on the rise. The "Taiwan independence" separatist forces and their activities are still the biggest threat to the peaceful development of cross-Straits relations. Serious natural disasters, security accidents and public health incidents keep occurring. Factors affecting social harmony and stability are growing in number, and the security risks to China's overseas interests are on the increase. Changes in the form of war from mechanization to informationization are accelerating. Major powers are vigorously developing new and more sophisticated military technologies so as to ensure that they can maintain strategic superiorities in international competition in such areas as outer space and cyber space.

Facing a complex and volatile security situation, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) resolutely carries out its historical missions for the new stage in the new century. China's armed forces broaden their visions of national security strategy and military strategy, aim at winning local wars under the conditions of informationization, make active planning for the use of armed forces in peacetime, deal effectively with various security threats and accomplish diversified military tasks.

The diversified employment of China's armed forces adheres to fundamental policies and principles as follows:

Safeguarding national sovereignty, security and territorial integrity, and supporting the country's peaceful development. This is the goal of China's efforts in strengthening its national defense and the sacred mission of its armed forces, as stipulated in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China and other relevant laws. China's armed forces unswervingly implement the military strategy of active defense, guard against and resist aggression, contain separatist forces, safeguard border, coastal and territorial air security, and protect national maritime rights and interests and national security interests in outer space and cyber space. "We will not attack unless we are attacked; but we will surely counterattack if attacked." Following this principle, China will resolutely take all necessary measures to safeguard its national sovereignty and territorial integrity.

Aiming to win local wars under the conditions of informationization and expanding and intensifying military preparedness. China's armed forces firmly base their military preparedness on winning local wars under the conditions of informationization, make overall and coordinated plans to promote military preparedness in all strategic directions, intensify the joint employment of different services and arms, and enhance warfighting capabilities based on information systems. They constantly bring forward new ideas for the strategies and tactics of people's war, advance integrated civilian-military development, and enhance the quality of national defense mobilization and reserve force building. They raise in an all-round way the level of routine combat readiness, intensify scenario-oriented exercises and drills, conduct well-organized border, coastal and territorial air patrols and duties for combat readiness, and handle appropriately various crises and major emergencies.

Formulating the concept of comprehensive security and effectively conducting military operations other than war (MOOTW). China's armed forces adapt themselves to the new changes of security threats, and emphasize the employment of armed forces in peacetime. They actively participate in and assist China's economic and social development, and resolutely accomplish urgent, difficult, hazardous, and arduous tasks involving emergency rescue and disaster relief. As stipulated by law, they perform their duties of maintaining national security and stability, steadfastly subduing subversive and sabotage attempts by hostile forces, cracking down on violent and terrorist activities, and accomplishing security-provision and guarding tasks. In addition, they strengthen overseas operational capabilities such as emergency response and rescue, merchant vessel protection at sea and evacuation of Chinese nationals, and provide reliable security support for China's interests overseas.

Deepening security cooperation and fulfilling international obligations. China's armed forces are the initiator and facilitator of, and participant in international security cooperation. They uphold the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, conduct all-round military exchanges with other countries, and develop cooperative military relations that are non-aligned, non-confrontational and not directed against any third party. They promote the establishment of just and effective collective security mechanisms and military confidence-building mechanisms. Bearing in mind the concept of openness, pragmatism and cooperation, China's armed forces increase their interactions and cooperation with other armed forces, and intensify cooperation on confidence-building measures (CBMs) in border areas. China's armed forces work to promote dialogue and cooperation on maritime security; participate in UN peacekeeping missions, international counter-terrorism cooperation, international merchant shipping protection and disaster relief operations; conduct joint exercises and training with foreign counterparts; conscientiously assume their due international responsibilities; and play an active role in maintaining world peace, security and stability.

Acting in accordance with laws, policies and disciplines. China's armed forces observe the country's Constitution and other relevant laws, comply with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and maintain their commitment to employing troops and taking actions according to law. They strictly abide by laws, regulations and policies, as well as discipline regarding civil-military relations. According to law, they accomplish such tasks as emergency rescue, disaster relief, stability maintenance, contingency response and security provision. On the basis of the UN Charter and other universally recognized norms of international relations, they consistently operate within the legal framework formed by bilateral or multi-lateral treaties and agreements, so as to ensure the legitimacy of their operations involving foreign countries or militaries. The diversified employment of China's armed forces is legally guaranteed by formulating and revising relevant laws, regulations and policies, and the armed forces are administered strictly by rules and regulations.

Source:

http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2013-04/16/c_132312681.htm

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