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Fine art, from the 17th century on, has meant art forms developed primarily for aesthetics, distinguishing them from applied arts that also have to serve some practical function. Historically, the five main fine arts were painting, sculpture, architecture, music and poetry, with minor arts including drama and dance. Today, the fine arts commonly include additional forms, including film, photography, conceptual art, and printmaking. However, in some institutes of learning or in museums, fine art and frequently the term fine arts (pl.) as well, are associated exclusively with visual art forms.
The word "fine" does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline. This definition tends to exclude visual art forms that could be considered craftwork or applied art, such as textiles. The visual arts has been described as a more inclusive and descriptive phrase for current art practice. Also, today there is an escalation of media in which high art is more recognized to occur.
According to some writers the concept of a distinct category of fine art is an invention of the Early Modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art: A Cultural History (2003) locates the invention in the 18th century: "There was a traditional “system of the arts” in the West before the eighteenth century. (Other traditional cultures still have a similar system.) In that system, an artist or artisan was a skilled maker or practitioner, a work of art was the useful product of skilled work, and the appreciation of the arts was integrally connected with their role in the rest of life. “Art,” in other words, meant approximately the same thing as the Greek word techne, or in English “skill”, a sense that has survived in phrases like “the art of war,” “the art of love,” and “the art of medicine.” Similar ideas have been expressed by Paul Oskar Kristeller, Pierre Bourdieu, and Terry Eagleton (e.g. The Ideology of the Aesthetic), though the point of invention is often placed earlier, in the Italian Renaissance.
The separation of
arts and crafts that exists in Europe and the United States is not shared by
all other cultures. In Japanese aesthetics the activities of everyday life are
worthy of being done with both skill and creativity; integrating not on
Drawing is a form of
Mosaics are images formed with small pieces of stone or glass, called tesserae. They can be decorative or functional. An artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaic artist or a mosaicist.
Printmaking is the
process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Except in the case
of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece,
which is called a print. Each print is considered an original, as opposed to a
copy. The reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of
another work of art in a different medium — for instance a painting — but
rather an image designed from inception as a print. An individual print is also
referred to as an impression. Prints are created from a single original
surface, known technically as a matrix. Common types of matrices include:
plates of metal, usually copper or zinc for engraving or etching; stone, used
for lithography; blocks of wood for woodcuts, linoleum for linocuts and fabric
in the case of screen-printing. But there are many other kinds, discussed
below. Multiple nearly identical prints can be called an edition. In modern
times each print is often signed and numbered forming a "limited
edition." Prints may also be published in book form, as artist's books. A
single print could be the product of on
Calligraphy is a type
of visual art. It is often called the art of fancy lettering. A
contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is "the art of giving
form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner". Modern
calligraphy ranges from functional hand-lettered inscriptions and designs to
fine-art pieces where the abstract expr
Fine art photography
refers to photographs that are created to fulfill the creative vision of the
artist. Fine art photography stands in contrast to photojournalism and
commercial photography. Photojournalism visually communicates stories and
ideas, mainly in print and digital media. Fine art photography is created
primarily as an expr
three-dimensional artwork created by shaping hard or plastic material, commonly
stone (either rock or marble), metal, or wood. Some sculptures are created
directly by carving; others are assembled, built up and fired, welded, molded,
or cast. Because sculpture involves the use of materials that can be moulded or
modulated, it is considered on
Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. The inception of the term in the 1960s referred to a strict and focused practice of idea-based art that often defied traditional visual criteria associated with the visual arts in its presentation as text. However, through its association with the Young British Artists and the Turner Prize during the 1990s, its popular usage, particularly in the UK, developed as a synonym for all contemporary art that does not practice the traditional skills of painting and sculpture.
Dance is an art form
that generally refers to movement of the body, usually rhythmic, and to music,
used as a form of expr
Modern Western theatre is dominated by realism, including drama and comedy. Another popular Western form is musical theatre. Classical forms of theatre, including Greek and Roman drama, classic English drama (Shakespeare and Marlowe comprised), and French theater (Molière included), are still performed today. In addition, performances of classic Eastern forms such as Noh and Kabuki can be found in the West, although with less frequency.
Fine arts film is a
term that encompasses motion pictures and the field of film as a fine art form.
A fine arts movie theater is a venue, usually a building, for viewing such
movies. Films are produced by recording images from the world with cameras, or
by creating images using animation techniques or special effects. Films are
cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures,
and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an imp
Cinematography is the discipline of making lighting and camera choices when recording photographic images for the cinema. It is closely related to the art of still photography, though many additional issues arise when both the camera and elements of the scene may be in motion.
Independent filmmaking often takes place outside of Hollywood, or other major studio systems. An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio. Creative, business, and technological reasons have all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late 20th and early 21st century.
Architecture is frequently considered a
fine art, especially if its aesthetic components are spotlighted — in contrast
to structural-engineering or construction-management components. Architectural
works are perceived as cultural and political symbols and works of art. Historical
civilizations often are known primarily through their architectural
achievements. Such buildings as the pyramids of Egypt and the Roman Colosseum
are cultural symbols, and are imp