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Unit 5 Why Genes Aren't Destiny: Language Points ——《21世纪研究生英语教材阅读教程》下册  

2012-05-17 23:19:02|  分类: Unit5《21世纪研 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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cutting-edge ( Para. 1)

= being in the leading position in a field; the most advanced; in accord with the most fashionable ideas or style

The lesson to be learned here is that seemingly antiquated methods can be just as valuable as cutting-edge techniques.

These include lawyers, academics, publishers, politicians, clergy, travel agents, foreigners, and anyone connected with cutting-edge trends in fashion, music, and food.

 

all the more

= (adv.) so much more, more than ever

This fact is all the more amazing because Ireland is a relatively small country, with never more than four million people throughout its long history.

The hue and cry about death duties is all the more puzzling since they affect few people.

 

The land spilled forth such abundance that… (Para. 2)

The land has produced such abundant food that…

 

spill forth

= cause or allow … to flow or run out

 

random (Para. 3)

= chosen or happening without any particular method, pattern or purpose

Examples:

The winners will be selected at random from the correct answers received.

More random checks are to be held over the next few weeks.

 

?verkalix parish

--the ?verkalix parish of Norrbotten

 

parish

A local church community; A part of a city or town that has its own Catholic church and priest

 

heretical (Para. 5)

= characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards.

In feudal society, the Roman church regarded scientific theories as heretical beliefs.

In the old days he had hidden a heretical mind beneath an appearance of conformity.

 

We have had a long-standing deal with biology. (Para 5)

= We have had a long-term agreement with biology; We have had some concepts and opinions which we held firmly and for a long time in biology.

 

have a deal with…

= have an agreement with …

= do buying or selling with …; reach an agreement between parties

If you can accept 110 per unit, we have a deal.

Do you have a deal with the airlines?

The club is naturally very pleased that we have agreed a new deal with Joe.

 

The genetic slate would be wiped clean. (Para 5)

= (We assume that no matter how bad our life habits are, our next generation would not be affected because) our DNA structures would not change and our behaviors would not leave any marks on our genes.

 

amass (Para 6)

= to accumulate or collect

She is amassing a lot of data for her thesis

A speculator may try to amass great wealth.

 

imprint (Para 6)

= a mark or impression produced by pressure, printing or stamping; to produce a mark or impression on a surface

English still bears the imprint of the Norman invasion.

He tried to imprint the details on his mind.

 

short-circuit (Para 6)

= hamper the progress of; the noun form is short circuit

Junior members of the party have decided to short-circuit the process and go direct to the top.

Due to a short circuit in the high-tension wire, the power has been cut over a large area.

 

nature and nurture

The nature versus nurture debate concerns the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature") versus personal experiences ("nurture") in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits.

 

predispose (Para 9)

= to make it likely that someone will suffer from a particular illness or condition, or will feel, think or behave in a particular way.

Fatique predisposes one to illness

His good manners predispose people to like him.

The local inhabitants are predisposed to rheumatism by the damp climate.

His early training predisposed him to a life of adventure.

 

truncate (Para 9)

= to shorten by cutting off a part, end, or top.

Erosion has truncated the ridges of the mountains.

An editor sometimes has to truncate a news item to fit an available space.

 

manipulate (Para 10)

= to make someone think and behave exactly as you want them to, by skillfully deceiving them or influencing them.

I don’t like the way she manipulates people.

It was a shameless attempt to manipulate public opinion.

 

jump-start (Para.10)

1. start (a car engine that has a weak battery) by connecting it to another car's battery

2. start or re-start vigorously

A big question now whether he will be able to jump-start his stalled career.

The ability to tap power from space could jump-start whole new industries.

 

malignancy (Para 10)

= the state of quality of being malignant.

He had surgery for the removal of a malignancy.

Mesothelioma is diffuse malignancy.

 

The drug uses epigenetic marks to dial down genes in blood precursor cells that have become overexpressed. (Para 10)

= The drug uses epigenetic marks to silence bad genes in blood precursor cells.

 

dial down

operate a dial to reduce

I think my decision to dial down risk was the right one for me.

It's important to dial down the stress of falling a little at a time.

In recent months, both Seoul and Washington have held exploratory talks with Pyongyang, helping dial down tensions. 

 

lie dormant (Para 11)

= be inactive, as if asleep

 Are you conscious of the capacities for evil which lie dormant in us all?” he asked.

His work lay dormant for many years.

 

at long last

= as the end result of a succession or process

at last, in the end, in fine, in the last place

Whatever the reason, Mr. Marin's stock appears at long last to be on the rise.

At long last,he says, they are able to create a new kind of politics that will fulfill the expectations of the people.

 

sideshow (Para 12)

= an insignificant event or incident.

The initial conflict was a mere sideshow compared with the World War that followed.

Mentorship is not an educational sideshow.

 

tweak (Para 13)

= to pinch, squeeze or twist sharplyadjust finely

Matthew tweaked his  ear/nose, which was his habitual movement.

So while the new government may tweak its tactics, it is unlikely to change the strategy.

 

analogy (Para 13)

Analogy: It is a form of comparison. It draws a parallel between two unlike things that have several common qualities or points of resemblance.

Dr Wood explained the movement of light by analogy with the movement of water.

There is an analogy between the human heart and a pump.

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