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Unit 5 Background Information ——《21世纪研究生英语教材阅读教程》下册  

2012-05-17 23:12:37|  分类: Unit5《21世纪研 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Gene & Genetics

A gene is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism.

Genetics (from Ancient Greek γενετικ?? genetikos, "genitive" and that from γ?νεσι? genesis, "origin")

a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.

Epigenetics

In biology, and specifically genetics, epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence —— hence the name epigenetics.

Genetics Key Components:

Chromosome

DNA ? RNA

Genome

Heredity

Mutation

Nucleotide

Variation

Epigenome

An Epigenome consists of a record of the chemical changes to the DNA and histone(组蛋白)proteins of an organism; these changes can be passed down to an organism's offspring. Epigenetics is one of the current topics in cancer research.

epi- (Greek: επ?- over, above, outer)

 

Sweden

Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe.

At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of about 9.4 million. Sweden has a low population density of 21 inhabitants per square kilometre. Sweden's capital is Stockholm, which is also the largest city.

Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages. Today, Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy of government and a highly developed economy. In 2010, it ranked fourth in the world in The Economist's Democracy Index. Sweden also has the lowest Gini coefficient of all countries (0.23) which makes Sweden the most equal country on earth in terms of economic division.

 

Population density

is the number of people per unit of area usually per square kilometer or mile.

 

Questions:

What country is the most densely populated in the world?

What country is the least densely populated in the world?

Population density
is the number of people per unit of area usually per square kilometer or mile.

 

Population density

Regions of special position

No.1 Macau (China) 18,534

No.242 Greenland (Denmark) 0.026

 

Dr. Lars Olov Bygren

Head of the Department of Social Medicine at Ume? University

Editor-in-Chief of the "Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine"

 

Karolinska Institute

Karolinska Institute, is one of Europe's largest medical universities.

It is Sweden's third oldest medical school (founded in 1810), after Uppsala University (1477) and Lund University (1666).

According to the 2012 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, Karolinska Institute is ranked 32nd overall, and 6th in Europe.

A committee of the institute appoints the laureates for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

 

Stockholm

Stockholm, the capital and the largest city of Sweden, has long been one of Sweden's cultural, media, political, and economic centres.

Stockholm is known for its beauty, its buildings and architecture, its abundant clean and open water, and its many parks. It is sometimes referred to as Venice of the North.

 

The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal. It is one of the world's best known, oldest, and most respected general medical journals.

The Lancet was founded in 1823 by Thomas Wakley, an English surgeon who named it after the surgical instrument called a lancet, as well as after the term "lancet arch",a window with a sharp pointed arch, to indicate the "light of wisdom".

It publishes original research articles, review articles ("seminars" and "reviews"), editorials, book reviews, correspondence, as well as news features and case reports.

It has been owned by Elsevier since 1991. As of 1995, the editor-in-chief is Richard Horton. The journal has editorial offices in London, New York, and Beijing.

 

Charles Robert Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin (1809 –1882) was an English naturalist. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.

Darwin published his theory in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species. By the 1870s the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact.

In recognition of Darwin's pre-eminence as a scientist, he was honoured by a major ceremonial funeral in Westminster Abbey.

 

On the Origin of Species

Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, published in 1859, is a work of scientific literature which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.

Its full title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. Darwin included evidence that he had gathered on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings.

During the first half of the 19th century  ideas about the transmutation of species were controversial as they conflicted with the beliefs that species were unchanging parts of a designed hierarchy and that humans were unique, unrelated to animals.

The book was written for non-specialist readers and attracted widespread interest upon its publication. As Darwin was an eminent scientist, his findings were taken seriously and the evidence he presented generated scientific, philosophical, and religious discussion.

With the development of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s, Darwin's concept of evolutionary adaptation through natural selection became central to modern evolutionary theory, now the unifying concept of the life sciences.

 

Acta Biotheoretica

The Acta Biotheoretica is peer reviewed journal focusing on the mathematical and philosophical basis of biological and biomedical science.

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems.

The word "philosophy" comes from the Greek, which literally means "love of wisdom".

 

Median (Para.10)

In probability theory and statistics, median is described as the numerical value separating the higher half of a sample from the lower half. The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the observations from lowest value to highest value and picking the middle one. If there is an even number of observations, then there is no single middle value; the median is then usually defined to be the mean of the two middle values.

median

Paulson received an average grade of 64 and a median of 70.

Remission was long -- a median of 10 months and for some patients, 18 months.

The median income for a Web designer in 2008 was $75, 150, according to the BLS.

 

trump card (Para 11)

Trump cards are a set of one or more cards in the deck that, when played, are of higher value than the suit led.

= an advantage that makes it possible to win; last resort

Don’t reveal your trump card before the crucial moment.

His influence with the mayor has been his trump card in the contest.

 

a card game
a suit / deck; a set of 52 playing cards.
spades (?), hearts (?), diamonds (?) and clubs (?)

 

twin

A twin is one of two offspring produced in the same pregnancy. Twins can either be monozygotic ("identical"), meaning that they develop from one zygote that splits and forms two embryos, or dizygotic ("fraternal") because they develop from two separate eggs that are fertilized by two separate sperm.

Zygosity

Monozygotic ("identical") twins

Fraternal/Sororal (dizygotic) twins

Semi-identical twins

 

identical twins

non-identical twins

semi-identical twins

 

Salk Institute for Biological Studies

The Salk Institute for Biological Studies is a premier independent, non-profit, scientific research institute located in La Jolla, California. It was founded in 1960 by Jonas Salk, the developer of the polio vaccine.

The institute consistently ranks among the top institutions in the US in terms of research output and quality in the life sciences. In 2004, the Times Higher Education Supplement ranked Salk as the world's top biomedicine research institute, and in 2009 it was ranked number one globally by ScienceWatch in the neuroscience and behavior areas.

The institute employs 850 researchers in 60 research groups and focuses its research in three areas: Molecular Biology and Genetics; Neurosciences; and Plant Biology. Research topics include cancer, diabetes, birth defects, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, AIDS, and the neurobiology of American Sign Language. The March of Dimes provided the initial funding and continues to support the institute. Current research is funded by a variety of organizations.
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