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Unit3 Background info & Language points ——《21世纪研究生英语教材阅读教程》下册  

2012-04-05 23:43:44|  分类: Unit3《21世纪研 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Para 1

road warrior

?     (slang in computing) a mobile worker who is constantly on the road

globetrotter

?     globe + trotter

?     someone who travels widely and often

Abu Dhabi

?     Abu Dhabi, officially the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, is one of seven emirates that constitute the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is the capital of UAE and is the largest emirate by area (67,340 km?), and second-largest by population (after Dubai), accounting for approximately 86% of the total land area of the UAE.

?     The emirate's main revenues are from industry, construction and financial services.

AWOL

?     ="Absent Without Leave"

?     At the evening roll call they discovered that he was AWOL.

?     John has gone AWOL; he hasn't been in the office in a week.

of late

?     Mr Robinson has had a torrid time of late.

?     The euro area is likely to make a bigger contribution to global growth over the next few years than it has of late.

Para 2

schmooze

?     n.an informal conversation

?     v.talk idly or casually and in a friendly way

humor

?     v. keep (someone) happy or calm by acceptance of foolish behaviors

?     If you humor kids and don't try to discipline them, then they just learn to mellow out a little bit.

hammer

?     -- beat with or as if with a hammer

?     Why do you hammer at the subject day after day?

?     After the major agreement, we had to hammer out the details.

?     The answer took a couple of decades and recessions to hammer out.

Dervish

?     A Dervish is someone treading a Sufi Muslim ascetic path, known for their extreme poverty and austerity, similar to mendicant friars in Christianity or Hindu/Buddhist/Jain sadhus.

?     Religious practice

?     Many Dervishes are mendicant ascetics who have taken a vow of poverty. The main reason they beg is to learn humility, but Dervishes are prohibited to beg for their own good. They have to give the collected money to other poor people.

?     Sufi whirling

?     The whirling dance is the practices (performances) of the Mevlevi order in Turkey, and is part of a formal ceremony known as the Sama, performed to try to reach religious ecstasy. The name Mevlevi comes from the 13th century Persian poet, Islamic jurist, and theologian, Rumi who was a Dervish himself.

?     In 2005, UNESCO proclaimed the "The Mevlevi Sema Ceremony" of Turkey as amongst the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

Credit Suisse (CS)

?     The Credit Suisse Group AG is a Swiss multinational financial services company headquartered in Zurich, with more than 250 branches in Switzerland and operations in more than 50 countries.

Para 3

Diaspora

?     1. the body of Jews (or Jewish communities) outside Palestine or modern Israel

?     2. the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel; from the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem in 587-86 BC when they were exiled to Babylonia up to the present time

?     3. the dispersion or spreading of something that was originally localized (as a people or language or culture)

paradoxically

?       =abnormally, eccentrically, contradictorily

?     Paradox

?     assertion seemingly opposed to common sense, but that may yet have some truth in it.

?     Examples:

    More haste, less speed.

    It’s a paradox that in such a rich country there should be so many poor people.

finesse

?     strategy, device, facility

?     subtly skillfully handle a situation

Para 4

corporate Wikis

?     A wiki is a Web site that lets visitors easily add, remove and change the content.

?     The first wiki was created in the mid 90s by computer programmer Ward Cunningham who named his invention,"wiki," after the word for quick in Hawaiian.

?     The best-known wiki is perhaps Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia which is written collaboratively and can be edited by anyone.

?     Wikis are now making their way into corporations where they are used as collaborative software to handle such tasks as project management, tech support, research and development, event planning and customer relationship management, for general company communications.

?     One of the most useful uses is in tracking meetings. Agenda of meeting goes up on the wiki before the meeting, after the meeting it is updated with minutes of meeting.

designate

?     -- adj. fml. chosen for an office but not yet officially placed in it 

?     the minister designate

?     -- v. appoint for special work

?     Jack was designated cochairman.

?     He has been designated by the President as the next Secretary of Defense.

Para 5

Sali Berisha

?     born in 1944, is an Albanian politician and incumbent prime minister since 2005.

?     A cardiologist by profession, Berisha leads the Democratic Party of Albania (PD) and served as President of Albania from 1992 to 1997.

Ribbon-cutting ceremony

?     A ribbon cutting ceremony is a public ceremony conducted to inaugurate the opening to the general public of a new building or business.

Para 6

Glacéau

?     Energy Brands, also as Glacéau, is a leading firm that makes vitamin-enhanced water.

?     Founded in May 1996 by J. Darius Bikoff. By 2002, the Glacéau line of waters were the top selling enhanced water brand in the United States.

?     Energy Brands is owned primarily by Bikoff, employees, and small investors. 30% equity was sold to LVMH sometime in the 2000s. The shares eventually were sold to India-based Tata Group in 2006 until in  2007 Coca-Cola Company purchased the company as an independent subsidiary, leaving its actual operations with its existing management including Bikoff.

?     Its products include: Smartwater, Fruitwater, Vitaminwater, and Vitaminenergy.

Para 7

MTV Networks International

?     Rebranded  to Viacom International Media Networks

?     MTV Networks International is a division of MTV Networks, a subsidiary of Viacom.

?     It includes the management and branding of 68 MTV channels around the world.

butterflies in the stomach

?     He got butterflies in his stomach when waiting for the interview.

?     As you rise to speak, try to appear calm, poised, and confident, despite the butterflies in your stomach.

touch down

?     My plane would touch down in hongkong just long enough to let me off .

?     The storm is expected to touch down somewhere in Texas or southwest Louisiana tomorrow morning.

Mecca

?     Mecca / Makkah is the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia.

?     As the birthplace of Muhammad and a site of the composition of the Quran, Mecca is regarded as the holiest city and a pilgrimage in the religion of Islam. It was absorbed into Saudi Arabia in 1925. Today, more than 13 million Muslims visit Mecca annually.

Para 8

Budapest

?     is the capital and the largest city of Hungary, the largest in East-Central Europe. It is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre.

Prague

?     Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic.

?     Prague has been a political, cultural, and economic centre of central Europe.

?     It was founded during the Gothic and flourishing by the Renaissance eras, and after World War I became the capital of Czechoslovakia. The city played major roles in the Protestant Reformation, and in modern history generally as the principal conurbation in Bohemia and Moravia.

?     Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city receives more than 4.1 million international visitors annually, as of 2009.

carve out

?     = exploit, establish a business

?     Persistence will carve out a way to success.

?     Carve out a specific time every day to focus on doing it well.

Para 9

a barrage of …

?     =  a large number of

?     a barrage of questions

?     a barrage of advertisements

?     a barrage of criticism

provide assurances to …

?     The equity markets, the most important component of the capital market, can provide capital assurance to manufacturers and companies of an economy.

?     In the same way, we agreed that Iran must provide assurances to the international community that its nuclear program is peaceful and transparent.

seal the deal

?     And be sure to bring the signed contracts with you so we can seal the deal.

?     Taking clients to breakfast, lunch or dinner has long been an effective way to build relationships, make the sale or seal the deal.

Para 10

be riddled with …

?     The wall was riddled with bullet holes.

?     The local government was riddled with corruption and internal contradictions.

Para 11

minister to

?     A nurse ministers to the sick.

?     These dark days will be worth all they cost us, if they teach us that our true destiny is not to be ministered on to, but to minister to ourselves, to our fellow men.

hail from …

?     Mr. Brown and Mr. white are old friends because they both hail from the same town.

?     More than 50 per cent of US computer scientists and nearly a quarter of its science and engineering workforce hail from abroad.

Zürich/Zurich 

?     is the largest city in Switzerland

?     founded by the Romans in 15 BC

?     the place of origin and centre of the Protestant Reformation in German-speaking Switzerland.

?     Zurich is a leading global city and among the world's largest financial centres.

?     named the city with the best quality of life in the world as well as the wealthiest city in Europe.

?     An impressive number of museums and art galleries can be found in the city, including the Swiss National Museum and the Kunsthaus. 

Alps

?     The Alps is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Germany, France and Monaco in the west.

?     The highest mountain in the Alps is Mont Blanc, at 4,810.45 metres, on the Italian–French border.

Para 12

only to find …

?     The police hurried to the house only to find that it was empty.

?     I frequented talks on Chinese ceramics in Hong Kong only to find that some of the Best collections were in European and American hands.

Para 13

S?o Paulo

?     Saint Paul (English)

?     is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and Americas, the world's sixth largest city by population(11,316,149), and among the five largest metropolitan areas on the planet (1,522.986 km2).

red-eye

?     a night flight from which the passengers emerge with eyes red from lack of sleep

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