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Unit2 Obama Signals Need for a Sharp Break from the Past: Language Points ——《21世纪研究生英语教材阅读教程》上册  

2011-10-11 20:52:10|  分类: Unit2《21世纪研 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1. inaugural (Para..1): occurring at or characteristic of a formal investiture or induction.

Examples:

When he started inaugural address as majority leader , his fellow senators at first did not notice and carried on chatting.

In his inaugural address, Thomas Jefferson warned of entangling alliances .

2. reviewing stand (Para.1): a stand from which a parade or military force can be reviewed

Examples:

The soldiers marched by the reviewing stand .

Michelle and her daughters watch George W. Bush take his place on the reviewing stand.

3. Rarely has a president come into office with the public in such a seemingly conflicted mood. (Para. 2): The past few years seldom witnessed a president take office in such an obviously contradictory mood

4. Great Depression (Para.2): the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s; a period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment

Examples:

He recalled the effect of the Great Depression in Boston .

Especially in the US , the Great Depression is usually identified with the stock market crash of 1929 .

5. Tax (Para.2): levy a tax on; set or determine the amount of (a payment such as a fine)

Examples:

The State taxes alcohol heavily.

you are taxing my patience.

6. shrewd (Para.2): marked by practical hardheaded intelligence; used of persons

Examples:

My boss is such a shrewd businessman everyone admires him .

I became very rich by making some shrewd investments .

7. somber (Para.3): grave or even gloomy in character; lacking brightness or color;

Dull.

Examples:

He was sad , and his thought about future was very somber .

As part of the somber ceremony , President Bush is visiting both areas today.

8. exhortation (Para.3): a communication intended to urge or persuade the recipients to take some actionthe act of exhorting; an earnest attempt at persuasion

Examples:

He accompanied me , however , not lost one moment in continuing his exhortation .

This is the feeblest exhortation I have ever heard.

9. They will not be met easily or in a short span of time.(Para.3): The challenges will not be overcome easily or in the near future.

10. plummet (Para.3): drop sharply

Examples:

If many investors sell , sellers will outnumber buyers , and the price of the stock will plummet .

They know that stocks will continue to plummet and any relief will be temporary .

11. History infused every aspect of the day, which saw the first African American president take office, as well as a generational shift. (Para.6): This day started a new chapter in history, which witnessed the first African American president take office, and the change of generation.

12. 12.tumult (Para.6): a state of commotion and noise and confusionviolent agitation;                           the act of making a noisy; some abrupt occurrence that interrupts an ongoing activityan unexpected piece of good lucka personal or social separation (as between opposing factions)

Examples:

Many wealthy people in such countries deposit money abroad because they fear tumult , or a grasping government , at home .

Analysts foresee tumult in the stock market .

13. …yesterday’s activities confirmed that Obama’s presidency will mark a sharp break from that of George W. Bush. (Para.7): a series of activities yesterday indicated that Obama’s presidency will be quiet different from that of George W. Bush.

14. interrogation (Para.7): a sentence of inquiry that asks for a reply

Examples:

Your two prime suspects are in the interrogation room.

The suspect is marched to the police station interrogation .

15. confluence (Para.9): a flowing together; a coming together of people

Examples:

The report says it is usually confluence of several positive factors .

This is where the confluence of the economic and budgetary crises creates an opportunity .

16. The confluence of events and Obama’s politics suggest that his presidency could bring a more momentous shift. (Para.9): Various events and Obama's political views show that his presidency will bring more substantial changes.

17. It is far too early to know to what degree Obama’s presidency will result in a rollback of the conservative era or the beginning of a new progressive era. (Para.12): It is still too early to understand the extent to which Obama’s presidency would lead to the return of conservative era or the opening of a new progressive era.

18. aspiration (Para.12): a will to succeeda cherished desire

Examples:

The large gap between aspiration and reality eventually broke his spirit .

To create a refreshing and quiet environment for mankind is our common aspiration !

19. undaunted (Para.12): unshaken in purposeresolutely courageous

Undaunted by his first setback , he decide to try once more .

Undaunted , the couple spent two weeks re converting the office into a bedroom and applied to another lender .

So I will believe in myself , undaunted in my beliefs and keep working harder .

20. on top of (Para.13): in addition to

Examples:

To stay in business , Chrysler asked for $5 billion on top of its existing $4 billion loan .

This is on top of the regular job and means Telepresence meetings at all hours .

21. imperil (Para.13): pose a threat to; present a danger to

Violence and military attacks will imperil peace .

Failure to do so could imperil the world 's future capacity to feed its people .

22. run up (Para.13): a substantial increase over a relatively short period of timethe approach run during which an athlete gathers speed

I run up quite a bill at your tailor shop today .

She had run up a huge phone bill during the course of the relationship .

Every year the old man would run up a score in this shop .

23. elude (Para.14): be incomprehensible to; escape understanding by

Examples:

The two men managed to elude the police for six weeks .

One must live with time and die with it, or elude it for a greater life .

24. That, too, is an objective that has proved beyond the capabilities of previous presidents and Congresses. (Para.14): That is also unable to be done by previous presidents and Congresses.

25. Obama campaigned on a promise to turn the page on the politics of the past. (Para.15): During the campaign, Obama promised to turn the page of the past politics.

26. gridlock (Para.15): a situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement

is possible

Examples:

The risk then is that a continuation of political gridlock would stop further economic reforms in Germany .

With both sides seeking maximum advantage , gridlock is a distinct possibility .

27. polarization (Para.15): the phenomenon in which waves of light or other radiation are restricted in direction of vibration; the condition of having or giving polarity

Examples:

The world is moving further toward multi-polarization and economic globalization .

That is why our policy will not lead to polarization , to a situation where the rich get richer while the poor get poorer .

28. grievance (Para.15): a resentment strong enough to justify retaliation

Examples:

White , in his new capacity, was anxious to exploit his grievance against Golconda .

Manager promises he will look into the grievance of the office staff .

He grumbled all the way home that this was enough grievance for a divorce .  

29. recrimination (Para.15): mutual accusations

I still want to run from risk and recrimination , but I keep my feet firmly planted.

Although responsibility for the accident plainly lies with BP , a slick of recrimination now laps around the White House too .

But if they are allowed to destroy the conference in a blaze of recrimination , the only victors will be Iran and North Korea .

30. worn-out (Para.15): used until no longer usefuldrained of energy or effectiveness; extremely tired; completely exhausted

Examples:

The challenges we face require tough choices , and Democrats as well as Republicans will need to cast off the worn -out ideas and politics of the past .

They also have a rule about worn -out clothes , which ensures they continue to dress alike regardless of the circumstances .

31. strangle (Para.15): kill by squeezing the throat of so as to cut off the air

Examples:

Another point of view is that higher commodity prices may not signal recovery so much as strangle it at birth.

Perhaps he had had a love affair in early life which he had to strangle -perhaps all early love affairs ought to be strangled .

32. cynic (Para.16): someone who is critical of the motives of others

Examples:

That is a woman that is not to joke about . Not even by a cynic like you .

Roberts is a cynic ; he won't accept anything or anyone on face value.

While cynic say what cosmeticians sell us is hope in a jar .

33. …that the stale political arguments that have consumed us for so long no longer apply.

(Para.16): that the outdated political arguments will not be applied any longer after they have wasted so much time and energy.

34. draw upon (Para.17): take or use as a source

Examples:

Older people are better at solving problems , because they have more mental information to draw upon than younger people do.

We are ready to assimilate and draw upon the science and technology and managerial experience that are useful to us .

35. mandate (Para.17): a document giving an official instruction or command

Examples:

On the domestic front , say his advisers , Mr Sarkozy intends to use the five- mandate in three phases .

China said before that it would not take part in peace-keeping in Afghanistan without UN mandate .

36. …he governs with a reservoir of patience. (Para.17):...people have a lot of patience of his policy.

37. demeanor (Para.18): behavioral attributes; the way a person behaves toward other

people

Examples:

It is through the daily cultivation of tolerance and humility that we become refined in demeanor and conduct.

Such a healthy state also gives us a much more relaxed demeanor in dealing with other people .

38. shrink from (Para.18): avoid (one's assigned duties)

Examples:

Life 's perhaps the only riddle that we shrink from giving up .

When faced with crisis , we did not shrink from our challenge - we overcame it .

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