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Unit1 Background Information ——《21世纪研究生英语教材阅读教程》上册  

2011-09-24 19:57:08|  分类: Unit1《21世纪研 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Background Information

Amanda Spake

Katrina Media Fellow

contributing editor to U.S. News and World Report.

former editor of the Washington Post magazine and Mother Jones.

nonfiction writer and editor for national media.

His writing appears in many publications. It has focused on health, medicine, and the environment.

 

The World Health Organization (WHO)

is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health, formally established on the first World Health Assembly on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.

Its major priorities include: to promote epidemic and endemic diseases prevention and control; provide and improve medical and public health and disease matters related to the teaching and training; promote determination of biological product international standards.

WHO currently has 191 members and two official associate members. In 1972 the 25th world health assembly recovered Chinese legal seat, after that, China attended all the meeting of the commission.


Brigham and Women's Hospital
BWH is the largest hospital of the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston, Massachusetts.
It represents the 1980 merger of three Harvard-affiliated Boston hospitals:
* Peter Bent Brigham Hospital established in 1913
* Robert Breck Brigham Hospital established in 1914
* Boston Hospital for Women established in 1966

1877 Boston restaurateur and investor Peter Bent Brigham dies, leaving a $5.3 million bequest to build a hospital 25 years after his death.

Victorian period

Alexandrina Victoria (1819 –1901)

the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1837-1901).

Her reign as the Queen lasted 63 years, longer than that of any other British monarch in history.

Victorian period

The time of her reign, a time of industrial, political, scientific and military progress within the UK.

Though Victoria ascended the throne at a time when the UK was already an established constitutional monarchy in which the king or queen held few political powers, she still served as a very important symbolic figure of her time.

Victoria's reign was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire; during this period it reached its zenith, becoming the foremost global power of the time, the empire on which the sun never set .

Her sense of duty and strict moral code had great influence on 19th-century British society.


Female body shapes

Independent of fat percentage, weight or width, female body shapes are categorised into one of four elementary geometric shapes:

 

Apple (triangle downward)

Apple shaped ppl have broad(er) shoulders compared to their (narrower) hips.

Apple shaped ppl tend to have slim legs/thighs, while the abdomen and chest look out of proportion compared to the rest of the body. Fat is mainly distributed in the abdomen, chest, and face.

 

Banana or straight (rectangular)

The waist measurement is less than 9 inches smaller than the hips or bust measurement. Body fat is distributed predominantly in the abdomen, buttocks, chest, and face. This overall fat distribution creates the typical ruler (straight) shape.

 

Pear or spoon or bell (triangle upward)

The hip measurement is greater than the bust measurement. The distribution of fat varies, with fat tending to deposit first in the buttocks, hips, and thighs. As body fat percentage increases, an increasing proportion of body fat is distributed around the waist and upper abdomen. The women of this body type tend to have a (relatively) larger rear, robust thighs, and a small(er) bosom. 

 

Hourglass shape. (triangles opposing, facing in)

The hip and bust are almost of equal size with a narrow waist.

Body fat distribution tends to be around both the upper body and lower body. This body type enlarges the arms, chest, hips, and rear before other parts, such as the waist and upper abdomen.

 

A study of the shapes of over 6,000 women, carried out by researchers at the North Carolina State University circa 2005, found that

46% were banana

over 20% pear

under 14% apple

8% hourglass

Another study has found that:

the average woman's waistline had expanded by 6 inches since the 1950s

today's women are taller and have bigger busts and hips than those of the 1950s

 

Waist–hip ratio

[From Wikipedia]

Waist–hip ratio or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is the ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips.

The WHR has been used as an indicator or measure of the health of a person, and the risk of developing serious health conditions.

 

A WHR of 0.7 for women and 0.9 for men have been shown to correlate strongly with general health and fertility.

Women within the 0.7 range have optimal levels of estrogen and are less susceptible to major diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and ovarian cancers.

 Men with WHRs around 0.9, similarly, have been shown to be more healthy and fertile with less prostate cancer and testicular cancer.

 

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