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翻译练习  

2011-06-09 21:35:33|  分类: 关于考试 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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克隆——医学科学的一个里程碑

Clones: A Milestone in Medical Science

这是科学事实还是科幻小说?1996年春天,已经发行的一本书讲述一个据说是事实的故事,一个老年的百万富翁花费巨资,成功地生产出一个克隆,一个完全的他自己的基因复制.据报道,该克隆儿童现在已经4,与他的"父亲"一起生活在加利福尼亚. 虽然在理论上人类克隆看上去简单,但其从未进入试验.目前科学家已经成功克隆了一些小动物.但是,复制活人这样复杂的试验依然是遥不可及的.即使技术上可能时,人类克隆的潜在性向我们人类整个价值体系发出挑战.我们必须在任何危机发生之前的今天,讨论有关的含义。

Is this science fact or science fictionIn the spring of 1996, a book was published telling the supposedly true story of an elderly millionaire who, at great expense, succeeded in producting a clone-an exact genetic copy of himself.According to the account, the cloned child,now 4 years old, is living with his "father" in California. Although it may look simple on paper, it isn't in practice. To date scientists have succeeded in cloning some small animals, but it is still a far cry from the much more complicated experiment on the carbon copy of human beings.Even when technically possible,the potential of human cloning challenges our entire value system.We must talk about the implications now ,before any crisis occurs.

 

公共利益与名人私生活

Public Interest and Private Lives

最近在英国,侵犯公众人物私生活的事件突出了缺乏保护隐私权的法律的问题.其结果:一个讨论之下的解决办法,是让这周返回工作的议会提出可能的立法议案去限制媒体的权利.

批评者说媒体入侵是对相关人的伤害和对他们在自由和隐私方面权利的忽视.他们说,侵犯隐私的目的只是为了增加报纸的销量. 在媒体权力与名人私生活的辩论中,人权自由组织认为还有一个对人民自由的巨大威胁,即保护普通大众免受侵犯,尤其是政府和商业组织的侵犯.

Recent intrusions into the lives of public figures have highlighted the lack of laws guarding privacy in Britain. As a result, one issue under discussion as Parliament returns this week is the possible introduction of legislation to curb press powers. Critics of media intrusion say it is hurtful to the individuals involved and ignores their basic rights to freedom and privacy.They say intrusion serves purely to increase newspaper sales. As well as the debate on privacy and the press,there is another issue that civil-liberty groups think is a greater threat to people's freedom.It is the protection of ordinary members of the public from intrusion,particularly by the state and by business.

媒体的某些部门以公共利益为借口辩解说他们的"私闯"是正当的.他们争辩道在一个民主社会里,公众有权力知道那些在当权者在做什么.政治家们和某些人们要对自己的所作所为负责任.他们批评说隐私权法律保护了特权. 而且,很多政治家利用他们的私生活去提高知名度.例如,在照相机向公众展示他们的家庭以强调"传统价值".因此,一些记者说他们窥视名人隐私以揭示他们的错误是合理的.

Some sections of the media justify their intrusion by saying it is in the public interest,In a democracy,they argue,the public has a right to know what people in positions of power are doing.Politicians and others are accountable for their lives.Privacy laws,these critics say,would protect the privileged. Additionally, many politicians use their private lives to gain popular support,for example by parading their families before cameras to emphasize "traditional values".Hence,some editors say they are justified in prying into private lives to uncover any faults.


公共演讲的艺术

The art of public Speaking

在任何一个演讲室里,学生最主要的担心之一就是怕上台.事实上,最成功的演说家在发表一场演讲之前也会紧张.你的演讲教室将给你一个获得信心的机会,让你的紧张的神经帮助你而不是阻碍你.如果你能这样积极地考虑,你将会朝着战胜怯场的方向迈进一大步:选择你真正关心的演讲主题,充分地准备,集中精力与你的听众沟通.如同数年以来在此学习的许多学生,你同样能够在你的演讲能力上提高信心.

Of course,public speaking is also different from conversation.First,public speaking is more highly structured than conversation.It usually imposes strict time limitations on the speaker,and it requires more detailed preparation than dose ordinary conversation.Second,speechmarking requires more formal language.Listeners react negatively to speeches loaded with slang,jargon,and bad grammar.Third,public speaking demands a different method of delivery.Effective speakers adjust their voices to the larger audience and work at avoiding distracting physical mannerism and verbal habits.

语言交流的过程,整体而言包括七个要素:演说者,信息,沟通途径,听众,反馈,外界干扰,和现场形态. 演讲是力量的一种表现形态,它承载着很重的道德责任.有道德的演说者用声音的方式去实现声音的目的.他们通过很好阐述他们的主题,通过诚实于他们所说的话,通过使用可靠的论据,以及通过正确的评论做这件事.

The speech communication process as a whole includes seven elements-speaker, message, channel, listener,feedback,interference,and situation. Speechmakeing is a form of power and it carries with it heavy ethical responsibilities.Ethical speakers use sound means to achieve sound goals.They do this by being well informed about their subjects by being honest in what they say,by using sound evidence,and by employing valid reasoning.


月球—来自远古之谜

The Moon-Riddle from the Past

美国和俄国的宇宙飞船都已经到达过月球,而且人类也在它的表面上行走过.月球上的岩石和土壤的样本,以及许多其它类型的数据,近些年来已经为人们所知所用了.然而除了我们所知道的关于月球的那些外,还有更多是我们不知道的. 我们不知道. 主要存在着三个理论:(1)月球产生自地球,(2)地球和月球在同一时间从同一气云和尘埃里同时产生,(3)月球是产生在太阳系的其它某个地方,而后被地球的地心引力所捕获.到现在为止,这些理论中没有任何一个已经被证明正确或错误.尽管我们已经从空间飞行中了解了一些,月球仍然是来自遥远过去的一个谜,而且仍将会在未来很长一段时间如此.尽管我们现在比过去知道的更多,但是我们也发现,不知何故,每个新答案都会引发出更多的新问题.

Spacecraft from the United States and from Russia have been to the moon,and men have walked upon its surface.Rock and soil samples and information of many other kinds have become available in recent years.Yet with all we know about the moon,there is even more that we don't know. We don't know.The three main theories(ideas)are(1)that the moon was born from the earth,(2)that the earth and the moon were born together at the same time from the same cloud of gas and dust,and (3)that the moon was born someplace else in the solar system and then captured by th earth's gravity.So far,none of these theories has been proved to be either right or wrong. In spite of all we have learned from space flights,the moon is still a riddle from the distant past-and will be for a long time to come.Although we know much more now,we find that,somehow,for every answer new questions spring up.

 

Does Travel Broaden the Mind

旅游开阔思路吗

One often hears it said that travel broadens the mind: if you stay in your own country the whole time, your ideas remain narrow; whereas if you travel abroad you see new customs, eat new foods, do new things, and come back home with a broader mind.

人们经常听说旅游开阔思路:如果你一生总是呆在自己的国家,你的想法很狭隘,如果你旅行到国外,你会看见新的风俗,吃到新的食物,做新的事情,然后回到家中便会有更加开阔的思路.

But does this always happenAn acquaintance of mine who lives in England and had never been outside it until last summer decided to go over to France for a trip. When he returned, I asked him how he liked it."Terrible," was his answer. "I couldn't get a nice cup of tea anywhere. Thank goodness I'm back." I asked him whether he hadn't had any good food while he was there."Oh, the dinners were all right, not as good as ours, but they were passable. And do you know, they insisted that it was marmalade The trouble is they don't Know English.'"

但是,这种情况是否总是发生呢 我有一位熟人常住英国,从未出过国,去年夏天决定到法国去旅行.当他回来后,我问他喜欢那儿吗 "糟糕透了",这就是他的回答."我在那里怎么也喝不到一杯好茶.谢天谢地,我现在回来了."我问他在那边吃过什么好东西没有.他说:",饮食还好,不过可不象我们做的那么好,马马虎虎吧.你知道吗,麻烦出在他们根本不懂英语."

There are some travelers who adapt themselves so successfully to foreign customs and habits that they incur the severe criticisms of their more stubborn fellow-countrymen. If they are Asians, they are accused of havings become "Westernized", and if they are Europeans, people say they have "gone native". Which is better: rigid, self-satisfied prejudice against things foreign (the idea "Thank God I am not as others are!"), or loss of your certainty that your own country's habits and customs are the only right ones, and hence the inability to be one of a herd any longer

有的旅游者非常成功地使自己适应了国外的风俗习惯,他们甚至遭受到本国更为顽固的同胞们的严厉批评.如果他们是亚洲人,他们常常被指责为完全变得"西方化了".如果他们是欧洲人,人们说他们"变成了土著居民".哪一种态度好些:顽固地自满地反对外国事物的偏见,或者:不再相信你自己国家的风俗习惯是唯一正确的,从而再也不能成为这一群体的一员

Perhaps the ideal would be if travel could succeed in making people tolerant of the habits and customs of others without abandoning their own. The criterion for judging a foreigner could be: Does he try to be polite and considerate to others Instead of: Is he like me

看来,理想的情况是,旅游能够成功的使人宽容地对待别国的风俗习惯,而又不放弃自己的那一套.判断外国人的准绳最好是:他是否努力作到客气而又关心旁人.而不应该是:他的行为举止是否和我一样

 

Becoming Wealthy: It's Up to You

致富取决于你自己

Critics often speak of "the rich" with none-too-subtle disdain, as if those at the very top of the income ladder are all dishonest people or as if becoming rich is difficult and means others must become poorer. While we would be the first to admit that some rich people are dishonest, we must add that achieving the status of "the rich" is not particularly difficult, contrary to popular wisdom. The rules for acquiring substantial wealth are few, simple. This fact suggests that becoming rich for most Americans is a matter of choice.

评论家们一说起富人往往带有明显的蔑视.就好象收入高的层次的人们都是狡诈之人,或者意味着成为富有阶层不容易而且其他人(诚实之人)一定不如他们富有.首先我们承认有些富人不诚实,但我们必须补充一点:与普遍的认识相反, 达到富人阶层并不是特别难.获取可观财富的规则只有几条,而且简单.这就意味着对于大多数美国人来说想不想变富是一个选择的问题.

One of the rules for being rich is to avoid frivolous temptations. That is easier said than done, and we do not necessarily recommend that all people should lead a pure and joyless life. We mean only to point out that the great majority of those four percent of Americans who have $1,000,000 in net worth get to where they are because they control their pleasures. For example, rich Americans buy cars that are on average only slightly more expensive than those less wealthy Americans buy.

变为富有的第一个规则是避免无重要意义的诱惑.说起来容易做起来难,而且我们也无意建议所有人都该过着平淡无味的生活.我们只是想指出那些占美国人口百分之四的净收入达一百万美元的大多数人之所以达到今天的富有就是因为他们克制了自己的享乐.例如,富有的美国人买的汽车平均来讲只是略好于那些不太富有的人的汽车.

To have a good chance at being rich, though, most individuals will need at least a college education, which just about will double their incomes over what they would have earned with only a high school diploma. A professional degree will result in an average annual income of about twice that of college graduates (or six times the income of a high school dropout). This means that those who invest in education do not have to save as high a percentage of income to become rich at retirement. However, in all probability, educated Americans Will be richer at retirement simply because they will be able to save more along the way and because they are likely to be smarter and can achieve a higher rate of return on their savings.

但是要想有好机会变富有大多数至少需要受到大学教育,与只有高中文凭的相比,大学的教育可使他们的收入翻一翻.大学以上的学历会导致比大学毕业的年平均收入增加一倍(或是高中辍学人的六倍). 这就意味着在教育上投资的人要想在退休时致富不必节省同样高比例的收入.但是极为可能的是受过良好教育的美国人之所以在退休时更富有是因为他们在过去的岁月里积攒得更多,而且他们可能更明智,获取更高的存款的投资回报率.

From our perspective, becoming rich is really a matter of choice. Opportunity to do so abound. Of course, recognizing that you can choose to become rich does not mean that you should. As we have noted, choosing to become rich requires sacrifices that many people quite rationally have chosen not to make. One can lead a life rich in satisfaction and accomplishment without becoming rich financially.

在我们看来,致富的确是选择的问题.机会到处存在.当然意识到可以选择致富并不意味着应该致富.正象我们所见,选择致富需要牺牲,很多人很理智地不选择发财.一个人虽然金钱上不富有,但可以生活得满意而有成就.
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