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BooKB-Unit10 Background information  

2010-05-29 20:54:19|  分类: Unit10《新世纪研 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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John Milton (1608-74)
English poet
His famous epics: Paradise Lost 失乐园; Paradise Regained 复乐园
His classical drama: Samson Agonistes 力士参孙
Brief Introduction
John Milton,English poet & prose writer,born in London,England
Milton was one of the greatest poets in the English language & one of the towering figures in all literature.
His masterpiece,Paradise Lost,is considered the unsurpassed English epic poem. It is a powerfully imaginative & dramatic work,based in part on the Biblical story of the temptation & fall of Adam & Eve in the Garden of Eden. Milton,a deeply religious man,wrote the epic " to justify the ways of God to men." He is also famous for his graceful lyric poems and intensely moving sonnets.
Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost,an epic poem in 12 books,written in blank verse,represents the fullest expression of Milton's genius. The poem vividly portrays the story of Satan's rebellion against God & his tempting of Adam & Eve to eat the fruit of the forbidden Tree of Knowledge. The theme is the "Fall of Man" , man's disobedience & the loss of Paradise, with its prime cause-Satan.
Although Adam is the central figure in Paradise Lost,it is the villain,Satan,who emerges for many readers as the most interesting character in the poem,In Paradise Lost,Milton used the conventions of ancient Greek & Latin epics & enriched his poem with reference to classical mythology & literature.
Paradise Regained
Milton followed Paradise Lost with a shorter & less brilliant religious epic,Paradise Regained,which describes the New Testament story of Christ’s victory over Satan in the wilderness.
Samson Agonistes
Milton's last important work was the magnificent poetic drama Samson Agonistes,which presents the Biblical story of Samson in the form of a Greek tragedy. The blind and suffering Samson is strongly reminiscent of Milton himself.
The picture of Israel's mighty champion,blind,alone,afflicted by thoughtless enemies but preserving a noble ideal to the end,is a fitting close to the life work of the poet himself. The poet's aim was to present in English a pure tragedy.  The whole poem strongly suggests Milton's passionate longing that he too could bring destruction down upon the enemy at the cost of his own life. In this sense,Samson is Milton.

BSE - Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, also known as Mad Cow Disease

eugenics movement
The word eugenics (from the Greek eugenes or wellborn) was coined in 1883 by Francis Galton, an Englishman and cousin of Charles Darwin, who was the founder of the movement and applied Darwinian science to develop theories about heredity and good or noble birth. The science has two chief divisions, namely, heredity and environment. Galton believed that heredity was by far the more important. He derived his main idea from the breeding of the race-horse. Just as we can breed horses for points, so also, it is contended, can we breed men for points. The eugenics movement, however, consists of more than study. It includes public action in the way of legislation, administration, and the influencing of human conduct.
Mary Shelley
(1797-1851)
English Romantic novelist, best known as the author of Frankenstein, and The Modern Prometheus (1818), in which she narrates the dreadful consequences that arise after a scientist artificially creates a human being. The man-made monster in this novel inspired a similar creature in several famous American horror films of the 1930s.
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 1792–8 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is critically regarded among the finest lyric poets in the English language. Shelley was famous for his association with John Keats and Lord Byron. The novelist Mary Shelley was his second wife.
Shelley's unconventional life and uncompromising idealism, combined with his strong disapproving voice, made him an authoritative and much-denigrated figure during his life and afterward. Shelley never lived to see the extent of his success and influence. It is said he made no more than 40 pounds from his writings.
He became an idol of the next three or even four generations of poets, including the important Victorian and Pre-Raphaelite poets. He was admired by Karl Marx, George Bernard Shaw, Bertrand Russell, Isadora Duncan and Jiddu Krishnamurti ("Shelley is as sacred as the Bible.") Henry David Thoreau's civil disobedience and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's passive resistance were influenced and inspired by Shelley's nonviolence in protest and political action. Regarded among the finest lyric poets in the English language, he is most famous for such classic anthology verse works as:

爱尔兰人之歌(The Irishman's Song,1809)
战争(War,1810)
魔鬼出行(The Devil's Walk,1812)
麦布女王(QueenMab,1813)
一个共和主义者有感于波拿巴的倾覆(Feelings Of A Republican On The Fall Of Bonaparte,1816)
玛丽安妮的梦(Marianne's Dream,1817)
致大法官(To The Lord Chancellor,1817)
奥西曼迭斯(Ozymandias,1817)
逝(ThePast,1818)
一朵枯萎的紫罗兰(On A Faded Violet,1818)
召苦难(Invocation To Misery,1818)
致玛丽(ToMary,1818)
伊斯兰的反叛(The Revolt of Islam,1818)
西风颂(Ode To The West Wind,1819)
饥饿的母亲(A Starving Mother,1819)
罗萨林和海伦(Rosalind and Helen,1819)
含羞草(The Sensitive Plant,1820)
云(The Cloud,1820)
致云雀(To A Skylark,1820)
自由颂(OdeTo Liberty,1820)
解放的普罗米修斯(Prometheus Unbound,1820)
阿多尼(Adonais,1821)
一盏破碎的明灯(Lines,1822) 

Frankenstein
The myth of the Frankenstein monster returns to its literary roots in this tale of a scientist's monstrous attempt to play God. This story is the archetype for many subsequent tales of the mad scientist and his creatures with the monster of misguided science eventually tormenting its creator. In the end the monster and his creator become irrevocably caught up in mutual destruction.

Lord Rutherford
1871-1937 Ernest Rutherford, First Baron
New Zealand-born British physicist who classified radiation into alpha, beta, and gamma types and discovered the atomic nucleus. He won the 1908 Nobel Prize in chemistry.

Thomas Jefferson
( 1743-1826)  the third president of the USA(1801-9)
a lawyer and a man of wide learning and abilities
was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence
founder of the University of Virginia

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